Popular and effective way of recycling organic waste is backyard composting. Compost is used by gardeners since long to improve garden soil. Garden composting process transforms lawn debris into a soil amendment product. Composting includes biological cycle of growth and decay. Microorganisms feed upon dead organic matter (forming the composting heap) and the nutrients from the decaying plants are recycled into their own bodies which in due course make way back to the soil. Remaining material from the decaying process exhibits properties similar to that of organic matter found naturally in the soil. This organic matter makes the soil porous, allowing the soil to retain sufficient water and making digging part easier while planting seeds or seedlings.
The decay process or composting process could be easily manipulated for faster degeneration of the waste to produce fine compost quickly. This can be achieved by balancing the proportion of water, food and air supply in the heap to aid the growth of thermophilic or high temperature microorganisms. Under favorable conditions for thermophilic microorganisms a compost pile may heat up to 48°C to 65°C. The high temperature range is enough to kill pathogens (disease-causing organisms) and weed seeds, but mycorrhizae remains unaffected.
Mycorrhizae are the beneficial fungi, which assists in nutrient take-up by the plant roots. After the completion of hot phase microorganisms (capable of surviving only in lower temperatures) including fungi various worms, insects and other invertebrates finish up with the decaying process.