The Japanese strolling garden (Kaiyu-shiki-teien) is an Asian-style landscape design style. They feature a pathway that takes visitors along a journey to view changing vistas and constructed scenes of nature. If you’d like to learn more about Japanese garden design see this article.
Artificial hills, artificial ponds, broad winding streams, and waterfalls with islands, rocks, and topiary provide a rustic ideal. There are paths and bridges in great number and variety. You will usually find a tea garden tucked away in a small separate garden within the Japanese stroll garden.
In the realm of garden design, few styles capture the essence of tranquility as exquisitely as Japanese stroll gardens. These landscapes are masterpieces of artistry and harmony. They invite visitors to take a sensory journey through carefully orchestrated scenes of nature.
In this article, we’ll explore the essence and allure of Japanese stroll gardens. We’ll look at its history, discuss key design principles, and even provide insights for creating your very own serene oasis.
What is a Stroll Garden
At its core, a Japanese stroll garden is an immersive landscape. It beckons visitors to engage in a leisurely and contemplative walk, where they’ll experience the beauty of nature in a harmonious and balanced setting.
Unlike traditional Western gardens with formal structure and symmetry, strolling gardens deliver an evolving journey. It’s a seamless and moving blend of natural and man-made elements.
You’ll find Japanese stroll gardens around the world, offering glimpses of Japan’s rich cultural heritage and serene landscapes.
History and Evolution of Japanese Strolling Garden
We trace the origins of Japanese stroll gardens to the Heian period (794-1185). At that time, they were influenced by the Chinese-style gardens of the time.
These gardens evolved over the centuries and were refined to reflect the distinct cultural sensibilities of Japan.
The Zen Buddhist influence became prominent during the Muromachi period (1336-1573). This lead to the development of dry gardens and an emphasis on simplicity.
The Edo period (1603-1867) witnessed the rise of more expansive and intricate stroll gardens. These were built for samurai residences, tea ceremonies, or imperial retreats.
Key Elements and Design Principles of Japanese Strolling Garden
A Japanese strolling garden is characterized by a harmonious blend of key elements and design principles that create a serene atmosphere.
Let’s explore some of these essential components:
Balance and Harmony
The concept of balance, known as “wa,” lies at the heart of Japanese design. Stroll gardens achieve balance through the careful placement of all the elements. This ensures a sense of equilibrium between nature and human intervention.
Water is a fundamental element in Japanese gardens, symbolizing life and purity. Ponds, streams, waterfalls, and even miniature lakes are incorporated. These water features provide a sense of serenity and reflection.
Rocks and Stones
Rocks and stones are revered as the bones of the landscape. Placed thoughtfully, they represent mountains, islands, or concepts. They add a sense of permanence and texture to the garden.
Zen and Minimalism
Drawing inspiration from Zen Buddhism, Japanese stroll gardens embrace simplicity and minimalism. Empty space, known as “ma,” is as important as filled space.
Negative space is often represented by gravel or sand. This invites the meditative mind to find stillness in the garden.
Color and Texture
Carefully selected plantings provide seasonal color and textural variations. This highlights the ever-changing beauty of the garden.
Traditional choices include cherry trees, maple trees, moss, bamboo, and evergreen shrubs. Cherry blossoms (sakura) represent the transient beauty of life, while pines symbolize longevity. Bamboo is often associated with strength and flexibility, and moss is valued for its sense of tranquil peace.
Symbolism and Metaphor
Japanese stroll gardens often incorporate symbolic representations using natural elements.
Stones in a Japanese stroll garden often hold symbolic meanings. For example, three stones grouped together represent the three jewels of Buddhism: Buddha (the teacher), Dharma (the teachings), and Sangha (the monastery). A large upright stone symbolizes Mount Fuji, which connects heaven and earth.
Bridges connect different areas of the garden but also symbolize the transition from the mundane world to the spiritual one. Stone lanterns, known as tōrō, represent enlightenment. These act as guides throughout the landscape and through life’s journey.
The meandering paths found in Japanese stroll gardens represent life’s journey and the exploration of one’s inner self. As visitors follow these paths, they encounter different elements. This creates a story they can make up as they go. Alternatively, it’s an opportunity to empty the mind and simply be.
Embracing the beauty of the changing seasons is a vital aspect of Japanese garden design. From delicate cherry blossoms in spring to fiery maple leaves in autumn, the garden transforms throughout the year. This offers the visitor a new experience with each visit.
Lighting and Sound Effects
Nighttime illumination and carefully orchestrated soundscapes add layers to the sensory experience. These include rustling leaves or the trickle of water from a fountain, enhancing the experience.
Japanese architecture, such as wooden pavilions, tea houses, gates, and bridges, harmoniously integrates with the surrounding landscape, creating focal points within the garden.
Bridges can take several forms. The Steep Bridge is arched and usually painted red and black, but bridges are often simple planks laid across a narrow stretch of water. There may be stepping stones across the water as well as in the gravel or moss.
Typically, both plants and rocks are rounded bun shapes and vertical elements are provided by trees. The ponds are full of golden carp.
The gateway to the strolling garden is a pergola-like structure with a roof. The whole garden is dotted with trained and shaped conifers and miniature conifers. Ponds have many rocks and grass right up to the edges.
This sort of strolling garden can be bounded by bamboo screens or it can merge gradually into natural woodland. Clipped paths and interestingly shaped rocks can show up to advantage against a white-painted wall.
Types of Japanese Strolling Gardens
Japanese stroll gardens provide a diverse array of styles, each with its unique characteristics and purpose. Let’s explore some of the notable types:
Promenade gardens feature winding paths that take visitors on a leisurely stroll, offering changing views of the landscape.
Japanese promenade gardens, also known as kaiyū-shiki-teien gardens, focus on providing a scenic and leisurely walk for visitors. These gardens feature winding paths that lead through various areas. This framing allows visitors to appreciate different views of the garden.
The main feature of a Japanese promenade garden is its carefully designed pathways. These guide visitors through the landscape in a deliberate manner. The paths often provide an ever-changing environment as visitors move from one section to another.
Japanese promenade gardens also embrace the concept of borrowed scenery (shakkei), where the natural landscape beyond the garden is incorporated into the design, such as distant mountains or neighboring trees.
Pond gardens revolve around the central element of a large pond or lake. Some feature islands, bridges, and water-loving plants.
Some water plants you’ll find in a Japanese pond garden include water lilies, lotuses, irises, Japanese water irises, canna, Japanese sweet flag, rushes, and horsetail.
Tea gardens, typically adjacent to tea houses, provide a serene space for tea ceremonies. These gardens offer beauty and emphasize building a connection to nature.
Plants commonly used in tea gardens include evergreens, azaleas, rhododendrons, magnolias, camellias, wisteria, ferns, mosses, and stonecrop.
Hill gardens utilize the natural topography to create multi-level landscapes, incorporating slopes, terraces, and steps to guide visitors on an engaging ascent.
Dry Gardens (Karesansui)
Dry gardens are often referred to as Zen gardens. They were initially created by Zen monks as places for meditation. The abstract nature of these gardens reflects the core principles of Zen Buddhism. They focus on simplicity, mindfulness, and the pursuit of enlightenment.
Zen gardens, also known as karesansui gardens, feature meticulously raked gravel or sand. They typically have carefully arranged rocks, that symbolize mountains or islands.
Moss gardens celebrate the lushness and tranquility of mosses. They’re a velvety carpet that adds depth and serenity to the landscape.
Gateway gardens greet visitors at the entrance of temples, shrines, or estates. This structure entices them to embark on a symbolic journey through the garden.
Famous Japanese Stroll Gardens
Japan boasts numerous world-renowned stroll gardens. Each highlighting unique design elements, historical significance, and breathtaking beauty. Some notable examples include the Ryoan-ji Temple Garden, Katsura Imperial Villa, Kenroku-en Garden, and Adachi Museum of Art Garden.
While the most authentic and revered examples are located in Japan itself, many countries have embraced the beauty and design principles of Japanese gardens.
In North America, notable Japanese stroll gardens can be found in cities such as Portland, Oregon (Portland Japanese Garden), San Francisco, California (Japanese Tea Garden), and Delray Beach, Florida (Morikami Museum and Japanese Gardens).
Europe also boasts several remarkable Japanese-inspired gardens, including the Kyoto Garden in London’s Holland Park and the Japanese Garden in Hasselt, Belgium. These gardens provide an opportunity to immerse yourself in the beauty and tranquility of Japanese design without leaving your own country.
Check out this video of the John P. Humes Japanese Stroll Garden.
Creating Your Own Japanese Strolling Garden
Designing your own Japanese stroll garden is an exciting chance to embrace the principles of balance, harmony, and simplicity.
By considering elements such as layout, water features, stone arrangements, plant choices, and architectural elements, you can create a personal oasis of tranquility tailored to your space and preferences.
Creating a Japanese stroll garden is a meticulous process that involves careful planning and attention to detail.
Here are some key steps to consider when designing and creating your own Japanese stroll garden:
Research and Inspiration
Begin by immersing yourself in the rich history and principles of Japanese garden design. Study different garden elements and concepts to gain a deeper understanding of the aesthetics and philosophy behind Japanese gardens.
Site Selection and Analysis
Choose an appropriate location for your garden. Consider such factors such as sunlight exposure, soil conditions, and available space. Analyze the site’s natural features, including existing trees, topography, and water sources. You’ll want to incorporate them into your design.
Layout and Design
Sketch a layout of your garden, taking into account the desired features and elements. Consider the overall flow and circulation of the visitor. Carefully place pathways and focal points such as water features, rocks, and architectural elements. Strive for a sense of balance, harmony, and visual interest.
Pathways and Circulation
Design the pathways that will guide visitors through your garden. Paths should be gently curved and meandering, encouraging a slow and contemplative stroll. Incorporate various materials for pathways, such as gravel, stepping stones, or wooden decking, and ensure they are well-maintained and easily accessible.
Integrate water elements into your garden design, such as ponds, streams, or small waterfalls. Water represents purity, life, and tranquility in Japanese gardens. Consider the size, shape, and positioning of these features to create a sense of natural harmony.
Choose plants that are suitable for your climate and site conditions, while also considering traditional Japanese garden plants. Incorporate a variety of textures, colors, and seasonal interest. Common plant choices include maples, bamboo, cherry blossoms, moss, and evergreen shrubs. Group plants in clusters to create visual impact and replicate natural landscapes.
Rocks and Stones
Select and arrange rocks and stones strategically to create focal points, represent natural formations, and evoke a sense of stability and tranquility. Use different sizes, shapes, and textures to add interest and balance to your garden.
Consider incorporating traditional Japanese structures, such as a teahouse, pavilion, or gate, to add architectural interest and serve as destinations within the garden. These structures should harmonize with the overall design and provide places for rest and relaxation.
Symbolism and Meaning
Infuse your garden with symbolic elements and metaphors, such as stone arrangements representing mountains, lanterns symbolizing enlightenment, or bridges signifying transition. Incorporate elements that hold personal significance or reflect cultural traditions.
Stroll Garden Ideas on a Budget
Here are a few ideas to inspire your Japanese stroll garden design and provide your garden with an Asian-inspired feel without a complete garden renovation:
- Create a tranquil standalone pond with floating water lilies and graceful koi fish.
- Incorporate a raked gravel Zen garden area for contemplation and meditation.
- Design a stone path with carefully arranged lanterns leading to a tea house.
- Use bamboo screens or fences to enhance privacy and create a sense of enclosure.
- Plant a colorful maple tree for stunning autumn foliage.
Creating a Japanese strolling garden is a journey in itself, and it takes time for your garden to mature.
Enjoy the process while embracing the principles of balance and harmony. Allow your garden to evolve organically over time. This exercise in patience enhances your own connection with nature.
Maintenance and Care of Japanese Strolling Gardens
Japanese stroll gardens require regular maintenance to preserve their beauty and ensure their longevity. Tasks such as pruning, weeding, moss care, and water feature maintenance are vital to sustain the intended atmosphere and aesthetic appeal.
Japanese stroll gardens offer a remarkable journey into the beauty and serenity of nature, harmonizing the elements of balance, symbolism, and seasonal variations.
With their rich history, design principles, and diverse styles, these gardens provide a profound source of inspiration for those seeking tranquility in their outdoor spaces.
Embark on the path of creating your own Japanese strolling garden and experience the timeless allure of this extraordinary art form, where nature and humanity meet and find harmony.
Editor’s Note: This post was originally published on Sep 13, 2020, at 16:33 and has been completely updated.